TIME in Physics http://ejournal.universitasmandiri.ac.id/index.php/timeinphys <p align="justify"><em>TIME in Physics</em> (Journal for Theoretical, Instrumentation, Material-Molecular, and Education Physics) is a peer-reviewed journal that is published by Universitas Mandiri and managed by the Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universitas Mandiri. <em>TIME in Physics</em> is published periodically second times a year in January and August.</p> <p align="justify"><em>TIME in Physics</em> provides immediate open access to its content to all readers. The journal is designed to serve academicians, researchers, developers, professionals, and others interested in physics. The articles in <em>TIME in Physics</em> included research and developments in Theoretical Physics, Instrumentation Physics, Material-Molecular Physics, and Physics Education.</p> <p align="justify"><strong>Electronic ISSN</strong> : <a href="https://issn.brin.go.id/terbit/detail/20230227492015856" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2986-2760</a> | <strong>DOI</strong> <a href="https://doi.org/10.11594/timeinphys">10.11594/timeinphys</a></p> Universitas Mandiri en-US TIME in Physics 2986-2760 <p>Authors who publish with TIME in Physics (Journal for Theoretical, Instrumentation, Material-Molecular, and Education Physics) agree to the following terms: Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/"><img src="blob:http://ejournal.universitasmandiri.ac.id/129998d6-2046-4043-9e51-7673ba326349" /></a></p> <p>This work is licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Structure and Morphology of ZnO Nanoparticles Prepared by Sonochemical Method http://ejournal.universitasmandiri.ac.id/index.php/timeinphys/article/view/8 <p>Ultrasonic wave has been utilized to synthesize the ZnO nanoparticle. ZnO is formed from a mixture of zinc acetate (ZnAc) and Natrium Hydroxide (NaOH) with various concentrations of ZnAc 0.5 M (ZnO 1:1) and 1.5 M (ZnO 3:1) and the concentration of NaOH remained at a concentration of 0.5 M. The Structure and crystal size were characterized using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), while its morphology was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results show that ZnO 1:1 has a higher (stronger) diffraction intensity than the ZnO 3:1. The crystallite size of ZnO 1:1 averaged 30.57 ± 4.31 nm while the ZnO 3:1 had an average crystallite size of 20.25 ± 7.12 nm. From the size of the crystallites ZnO particles that are formed include nanoparticles. ZnO 1:1 SEM image shows the shape of microrods in the 1:1 ZnO sample while in the 3:1 ZnO sample no microrods are formed. Based on the morphology, the 1:1 ZnO sample has an average size of 230 nm and is larger than the 3:1 ZnO sample which has an average size of 50 nm.</p> Akhiruddin Maddu Zetria Zikri Irzaman Irzaman Copyright (c) 2023 Akhiruddin Maddu, Zetria Zikri, Irzaman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 1 2 51 58 10.11594/timeinphys.2023.v1i2p51-58 Measuring creative thinking skills of vocational high school students on dynamic electricity: a case study http://ejournal.universitasmandiri.ac.id/index.php/timeinphys/article/view/17 <p>Creative thinking is a precise significant ability of 21st century education. Consequently, students are essential to must this ability to be applied in physics learning especially in the field of vocational. This study purposes to quantity students' creative thinking abilities about Dynamic Electricity. Examples remained busy by purposive sample method. Applicants in this study were 22 K-12 students of vocational students in Subang city. The implements used are three essay questions with four aspects that are turned off. The results showed that the average value was 43.43 with a low category. Consequently, students' creative thinking skills about Dynamic Electricity are still relatively low.</p> Roni Permana Roni Permana Copyright (c) 2023 Roni Permana Roni Permana https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-08-09 2023-08-09 1 2 59 64 10.11594/timeinphys.2023.v1i2p59-64 Designing a system control for a peanut grinder based on an electric motor http://ejournal.universitasmandiri.ac.id/index.php/timeinphys/article/view/19 <p>This research aims to design a control system for a Peanut Grinder based on a 135 Watt AC Motor, intended to assist small and medium-sized food business entrepreneurs who utilize peanut ingredients. The purpose of this device is to enhance production efficiency in the preparation of peanut-based condiments, replacing the manual and time-consuming process with an automated system capable of sorting peanuts into fine and coarse textures as desired. By utilizing a 135 Watt AC Motor obtained from a washing machine as the main driving component, the design aims to reduce costs by reusing existing components. The control system will encompass mechanisms for grinding peanuts efficiently, ensuring user safety, and regulating motor speed and grinding duration. This research emphasizes environmental friendliness by repurposing unused components. Overall, the proposed Peanut Grinder aims to benefit UMKM entrepreneurs by streamlining production processes and enhancing productivity in the peanut-based condiment preparation.</p> Rifaldi Rifaldi Kun Fayakun Rosalina Rosalina Emilia Roza Harry Ramza Copyright (c) 2023 Rifaldi Rifaldi, Kun Fayakun, Rosalina Rosalina, Emilia Roza, Harry Ramza https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-08-10 2023-08-10 1 2 65 74 10.11594/timeinphys.2023.v1i2p65-74 Electrical Energy Source based Tandon Water by Using Pico Hydro Generator http://ejournal.universitasmandiri.ac.id/index.php/timeinphys/article/view/20 <p>Electrical energy plays a much needed role in people's lives and economic development. Alternative energy potential, especially water energy, is a solution to utilize it as an energy source. Pico Hydro Power Plant is a tool or medium that uses water. At this time a hydro power generation system is being developed that produces electrical energy, one of which is using a pico hydro generator where the flow rate of water can be converted into electrical energy. In the water piping system at home it is used as a source of electricity, namely where the water reservoir as a reservoir for clean water with water conditions that are affected by the water flow rate can drive a pico-hydro generator turbine. In this research, the data collection process was obtained with a process of taking every 2 minutes for 40 minutes, it obtained an average water discharge of 8.75 L/s with a cross-sectional area of ​​0.0531, so the pico hydro generator can produce an average voltage of 8.88 Volts where the output results are step Up for battery charging and the average power is 10.60 watts on the battery using 3 loads and this research can be used for home lighting.</p> Farhan Alif Kun Fayakun Rosalina Rosalina Emilia Roza Harry Ramza Copyright (c) 2023 Farhan Alif, Kun Fayakun, Rosalina Rosalina, Emilia Roza, Harry Ramza https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-08-10 2023-08-10 1 2 75 83 10.11594/timeinphys.2023.v1i2p75-83 A Comparison of Anfis and Fuzzy Classifiers for Object Tracking Based on RGB Color Using Camera Vision http://ejournal.universitasmandiri.ac.id/index.php/timeinphys/article/view/27 <p>Image processing technology has a wide range of applications, such as in the medical, military, surveillance, and robotics industries. Analyzing objects in images is crucial when it comes to image processing. This study focuses on image processing to track objects of red, green, and blue (RGB) colors through the utilization of a camera. There are two research schemes: image processing and data classification. The data classification method used is the fuzzy and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The methods of image subtracting and region properties are commonly utilized for image processing. Based on the classification data results, the fuzzy logic classification demonstrated a higher accuracy rate of 86% when compared to Anfis' 65%. This was observed when both classification models were tested using a random sample. The value of Anfis is small due to the limited size of the training data used. As a result, it is recommended to use a fuzzy classifier for object color tracking for good performance.</p> Iqbal Robiyana Timbo Faritcan Parlaungan Sarifudin Muhamad Agung Suhendra Copyright (c) 2023 Iqbal Robiyana, Timbo Faritcan Parlaungan, Sarifudin, Muhamad Agung Suhendra https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-08-18 2023-08-18 1 2 85 91 10.11594/timeinphys.2023.v1i2p85-91 Adsorption Kinetic Study of Iron Metal Ions in the Batik Cual Waste onto Freshwater Crab (Parathelphusa convexa) Shell Chitosan http://ejournal.universitasmandiri.ac.id/index.php/timeinphys/article/view/18 <p>Chitosan from freshwater crab (Parathelphusa convexa) shell has been successfully extracted and its kinetic adsorption models for iron (Fe) metal ions in the batik cual waste solution (BCWs) were studied. Freshwater crab chitosan (FwC-Chi) was extracted via demineralization, deproteinization, decolorization, and deacetylation steps. The deacetylation degree value of FwC-Chi was 97.92% determined through FTIR spectra using the baseline method. In this study, iron metal ions distributed in the BCWs homogeneously with the concentration of iron (Fe) was 0.43 mg/L determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The performance of FwC-Chi adsorption on iron in the BCWs with the ratio of 1:100 (w/v) for various contact times of 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 minutes respectively while stirring homogeneously at room temperature. The result showed that the adsorption kinetic models for iron metal ion in the BCWs follows Behnajady-Modirshahla-Ghanbery (BMG) and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Based on this model we found that the decrease of iron concentration is indicated by the decolorization of the waste color. It’s clear that there is a relationship between the waste color with the concentration of iron metal in the BCWs. The coefficient of decolorization decay, rate of decolorization and adsorption rate coefficient was 1,366 g<sup>-</sup>1, 16,053 g min<sup>-1</sup>, and 0,043 g mg<sup>-1</sup> min<sup>-1</sup> respectively achieved based on this model.</p> Fadillah Ramadhani Widodo Budi Kurniawan Herman Aldila Copyright (c) 2023 Fadillah Ramadhani, Widodo Budi Kurniawan, Herman Aldila https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-08-21 2023-08-21 1 2 93 100 10.11594/timeinphys.2023.v1i2p93-100